2月 202017
 

從去年(2014)開始微軟就一直陸續放有缺陷的更新出來
導致很多使用者災情慘重、哀鴻遍野…orz
自從今年(2015)的4月更新完後,拙者的Windows Update就癱瘓掉了
每次點選檢查更新後,沒多久肯定會跑出錯誤代碼 8007000E
很不幸的,拙者應該就是去踩到微軟的罠(陷阱)
一切都是微軟為了Windows10的布局啊!!!! Continue reading »

2月 182017
 

Update .gitmodules with the path to the new repository
Remove the corresponding line from the “.git/config” file
Delete the corresponding directory in the “.git/modules/external” directory
Delete the checked out submodule directory itself (unsure if this is necessary)
Run git submodule init and git submodule update
Make sure the checked out submodule is at the correct commit, and commit that, since it’s likely that the hash will be different
After doing all that, everything is in the state I would expect.

  发表于 13:16  Tagged with:
1月 222017
 

By: Ryan Frankel Posted: May 9, 2016

 

TL; DR: We assess two of the most popular web servers: NGINX and Apache, on six key points of comparison (performance for static vs. dynamic content, OS support, security, flexibility, documentation, and support). We’ll find that the two are worthy competitors, but Apache’s .htaccess file makes it particularly appealing to shared hosting customers. Meanwhile, NGINX reigns supreme for dynamic content support, and due in part to its more advanced feature offerings, is most popularly used by VPS and dedicated hosting users. Finally, we’ll go over our recommendations for hosting your next web app project.

There was a time (~late 90s-2011) when the Apache web server served around 60 percent — and at times even more — of the world’s websites. That percentage has since fallen below 35 and is still dropping at quite a significant rate. Meanwhile, Microsoft’s IIS web server has held a somewhat steady, slightly increasing, share of the market, reaching 30 percent today. Third place is held by a competitor called NGINX (pronounced “engine-x”), which currently serves around 16 percent of all sites, and that rate is steadily growing by about one percent each year.

I’ll note that some web surveyors place the market shares of Apache and NGINX much higher, considering IIS a lesser competitor. Reality likely resides somewhere in the middle, but the overall trends are clear. Considering only the busiest sites on the Web, Apache holds about 46 percent of the market share, but that portion drops by about four percent annually; NGINX holds a strong second place with 24 percent of the market share and is growing at a rate of about three percent each year. Clearly NGINX is enticing the world’s biggest web properties with something! Continue reading »

1月 222017
 
January 28, 2015

Introduction

Apache and Nginx are the two most common open source web servers in the world. Together, they are responsible for serving over 50% of traffic on the internet. Both solutions are capable of handling diverse workloads and working with other software to provide a complete web stack.

While Apache and Nginx share many qualities, they should not be thought of as entirely interchangeable. Each excels in its own way and it is important to understand the situations where you may need to reevaluate your web server of choice. This article will be devoted to a discussion of how each server stacks up in various areas. Continue reading »

1月 222017
 

by Rod Smith, [email protected]
Last Web page update: 3/11/2011
The GNU libparted library is an extremely important partitioning tool for Linux and some other operating systems (OSes). Programs such as the text-mode GNU Parted (aka parted) and the GUI GNOME Partition Editor (aka GParted) are built atop libparted, as are the partitioning tools employed by many Linux distributions’ installation routines.

Unfortunately, although libparted has many very useful features, it also has some bugs and limitations. Some of these motivated me to write my own partitioning tool for GUID Partition Table (GPT) disks, GPT fdisk. Another issue motivates this Web page: GParted sometimes claims that disks have no partitions, even though other tools, such as the Linux kernel and the fdisk utility, clearly see partitions on the disk. This problem has been cropping up a lot lately on Web forums. Continue reading »

1月 222017
 


Cylinder 柱面数 表示硬盘每面盘面上有几条磁道。
Head 磁头数 表示磁盘共有几个磁头,也就是几面盘面。
Sector/Track 扇区数 表示每条磁道上有几个扇区。
逻辑区块 Block:逻辑区块 是在 partition 进行 filesystem 的格式化时,所指定的最小存储单位。Block 的大小为 Sector 的 2 的次方倍数。磁头一次可以读取一个 block。

看 fdisk -l 的输出例子:

Disk /dev/vm_storage_pool_vg/vm4: 19.3 GB, 19327352832 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2349 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00014b4f

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/vm_storage_pool_vg/vm4p1 * 1 66 524288 83 Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/vm_storage_pool_vg/vm4p2 66 588 4194304 82 Linux swap / Solaris
Partition 2 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/vm_storage_pool_vg/vm4p3 588 2350 14154752 8e Linux LVM

这里有 255 个磁头,每个磁道有 63 个扇区,一个盘片有 2349 个磁道。

一个扇区的大小是 512 bytes。

计算一下,255 * 63 * 512 * 2349 = 19321182720 bytes,和 19327352832 有点差距(为什么?)。

看 Units 这一行,16065 = 255 * 63,是 Sector/Track 和 Head 的乘积,它再乘以 Sector 大小(512 bytes) 即是 Units,它表示一个垂直 Cylinder 的字节数。

另外,fdisk -l 使用 cylinders,加上 -u 表示使用 sectors。

-u When listing partition tables, give sizes in sectors instead of cylinders. Continue reading »

1月 042017
 

随着互联网的发展、物联网的建设以及数据移动业务的大幅增加,对IP地址资源的需求也随之加大。在IPv4地址空间快速耗尽的局面下,IPv6巨大的地址空间以及诸多优势和功能,使其成为构筑下一代网络的重要基础。据预计从2015年到2020年,全国IPv6流量将成长16倍,年复合成长率达74%。目前,各国政府纷纷将IPv6提升为国家发展战略的高度,并制定有关的发展策略。而对于中国,就像中国工程院院士、清华大学教授吴建平所说的一样,中国IPV6商业部署“起个大早,赶个晚集”。

而随着全球IPv6技术产业生态成熟,国内IPv6发展环境也将产生质的变化,并且对国内形成倒逼态势,2017年中国IPv6将进入关键时期。目前工信部已经表示将对IPv6管理创新研究进行资金支持。用招标的方式组织优秀项目,为其提供补助,并以此展开相关应用。


现状:中国IPV6商业部署起个大早,赶个晚集


目前,主要发达国家的IPv6发展加速,LTE网络部署支持IPv6是快速发展的源动力。到2016年9月全球IPv6流量已占全网总流量15%。在这其中美国表现尤为突出。美国四大移动运营商都加速IPv6商业部署;苹果发布IPv6支持计划;美国主流网站Facebook、Google、Tritte、Youtube等都支持IPv6访问,并且通过IPv6网络访问Facebook的流量超过IPv4网络。


而中国虽然2003年就启动CNGI建设,但是十多年过去了, IPv6发展仍然是中间(网络)强、两端(终端和信源)弱,流量主要集中在教育网CERNeT2上。目前中国的IPv6用户在世界仅排第50位,甚至落后于印度、越南,国内只有千分之三用户可以用IPv6。


当然为改变IPv4地址资源受限所造成的被动局面,迎击全球竞争态势,国内三大运营商也在积极推进IPv6建设。下面是各大运营商的进展情况:


中国电信

•完成China Net和CN2骨干网升级改造。

•基本完成城域网骨干核心和业务控制层升级改造;超过75%的城域网开启双栈。

•三星级以上IDC完成改造,90%以上机架支持双栈。

•所有省份的EPC设备支持LTEIPv6。

•8个自营业务升级支持IPv6。

•IPv6固网覆盖宽带接入用户6100万,活跃用户达到580万;基于LTE网络的IPv6用户大约500万。


中国移动

•在试点10省:

——CMNet骨干网完成双栈升级改造

——城域网/接入网完成双栈改造

——完成28个IDC双栈化改造

——完成5个自营业务的升级改造


•LTEv6方面

——7省9城市已正式开通IPv6应用

——VoLTE业务由纯IPv6网络承载


•IPv6用户

——固网超过73万,LTEv6用户超过122万(江苏、广东不在统计内)


中国联通

•已完成China169和11个试点省市骨干网双栈改造。

•完成试点城市40个数据中心IDC升级改造。

•升级改造13个自有业务平台。

•目前11个城市IPv6网络覆盖用户数约400万,业务体验用户约57万。

•已在全国56个城市开通LTE网络,核心设备已具备支持IPv6的能力,但尚未通过验证;7省市开展VoLTE试点工作。


这里值得一提,广电网络为适应三网融合的发展,开始进行网络改造,明确提出要构建下一代广播电视融合网,加快互联互通建设,这里面IPv6起着关键作用。在2016年,广电在IPv6建设中也取得一定的成就。在11月份,国家发改委在广州启动面向“互联网+”的广电IPv6云资源交换中心,此项目的实施将形成广电行业IPv6演进的标准规范,使广播电视网络从应用、平台、网络、终端具备向下一代互联网进行迁移的条件,提升广电网络行业未来竞争力。当然这只是万里长征的第一步,未来广电还需要将试点形成规模,并发展IPv6新模式、新业态,探索盈利模式,才能成为最终的赢家。



发展:IPv6面临突破发展的严峻挑战


目前我国IPV6发展的现状为VoLTE商用推动移动终端对IPv6的支持,IPv6移动用户数也出现显著增长,但流量占比很低。并且互联网企业普遍缺乏向IPv6升级演进的积极性,国内主流网站和APP也基本都不支持IPv6。可以看出,对于中国来说,IPv6的建设任重道远。中国信息通信研究院信息网络领域专家在2017年ICT深度观察大型报告会上指出限制我国IPv6发展的因素以及表明未来的发展方向。


三大因素制约中国IPv6发展:

•对于NAY技术形成路径依赖。一方面中国是全球部署NAT最多的国家,网络技术研发、建设、运营已经严重依赖NAT技术;另一方面,取消NAT不但涉及巨大的成本,而且也面临技术、工程方面的挑战。

•技术产业生态的主导力和影响力不够。首先,在芯片、操作系统、数据库、中间件以及部分商用系统还缺少自主可控的能力;其次,对于全球网络技术创新、网络建设、运营维护方面的影响力弱。

•没有形成真正的市场驱动力。对于运营商而言,IPv6部署是一个巨大的成本工程,不能带来效益;对于互联网企业而言,缺乏特定创新业务和应用,需求不强烈。


中国IPv6发展方向:

•以LTE发展为契机:推动移动网络、移动终端、移动商店支持IPv6。

•强化物联网/工业互联网中IPv6应用:摆脱对于IPv4 NAT的技术依赖。

•制定NAT退网计划:放弃NAT网络扩容,分期分批将现有NAT设备淘汰。

•继续提升网络能力:加强IPv6骨干网络互联互通,IPv6国际出入口建设。


未来人与人、人与物、物与物间的信息交换与共享需求的逐渐增大,万物互联时代IP地址的支撑至关重要。对于中国整体而言,早期由于技术上的落后,没有申请到大量的IP地址,很多单位都是用私有地址,出口上再用公有地址转换,现在,IPv6协议给我们带来了非常大的机会。而广电在三网融合大环境下,网络、宽带建设的需求下,也必须加快IPv6部署步伐。中国互联网协会理事长、中国工程院邬贺铨院士认为”国际上IPv6 的采用正在起飞,中国不能错过这一机会!必须赶上。而广电网络作为国家互联网内容的主要提供者,在互联网内容安全管理承担了主要责任,应当成为IPv6战略的主要推进者。”在政策的号召以及业务推进需求背景下,相信2017年,我国IPv6部署将加快,商业应用和普及将迈向新的阶段。


来源:科讯广电网 王建利  2017-1-6

  发表于 02:40  Tagged with:
11月 272016
 

by Charles Chow | August 29, 2016

If you recently updated your Nexus phone to Android 7.0 Nougat, but somehow you can’t use your phone’s Wi-Fi network, and you might have tried factory reset or flash the factory image, and Wi-Fi still can’t come back alive, here is the method that fix it.

This No Wi-Fi issue happened at the first time Android N developer preview roll out, if you owned a Nexus 5X or Nexus 6, joined the Android Beta problem, then flash the Android N DP image to your phone, your phone will lose the Wi-Fi MAC address and Android system will get the MAC address with value 02:00:00:00:00:00, and this is the reason why the Wi-Fi network can’t be enabled after a fully phone re-flash. So you can check the Wi-Fi MAC address under Settings -> About phone -> Status, if you see the “02:00:00:00:00:00” under Wi-Fi MAC address, follow these step to fix the problem. Continue reading »